Dental problem has become one of the most common problems in each family today. Both adults and children suffer from various dental diseases. Dental caries is one of the many significant dental problems specially noticed in children. It is an infectious dental disease that harms the teeth of the children. Dental caries can be cured by dentist in Limassol. Some of the financially backward sectors witness maximum dental caries in children.
- What is dental caries?
Dental caries is a communicable and infectious disease found in children. Destruction of teeth is caused by this disease as acid is formed by the bacteria in dental plaque. Dental caries is considered asa dynamic disease process. The balance between pathological and protective factors inside the mouth determines caries reversal or progression. Acidic products of bacterial metabolism demineralize the hard tissue of the teeth. It alternates with the time of remineralization.
Dental caries develops episodically which alternates periodically with demineralization and remineralization. Demineralization is the process in which the calcium phosphate mineral of the tooth is dissolved by the cariogenic bacteria that produces lactic acid. Children are generally susceptible to caries because they have temporary teeth or milk teeth with thinner enamel in compare to the permanent teeth.
“White spot lesion” is the primary observed stage of dental caries in children. Dentist can remineralize the enamel of tooth if there is no cavity on the surface of the tooth. The overlying tooth surface can be collapsed and resultinto cavity, if demineralization of the enamel is extensive. Saliva can prevent the disease of dental caries. Calcium, lipids, phosphate, proteins, buffers and anti bacterial substances are provided by saliva. Low pH in plaque can be reversed with a higher pH with the help of saliva buffering. It helps to retain phosphate and calcium into the tooth enamel. Normal salivary flow can decrease the risk of dental caries.
- Early Childhood Caries (ECC)
Teeth of the babies are destroyed with a “virulent” form of dental caries. Dental caries which is on the tooth surface of the children up to 3 years is called early childhood caries. This problem generally found in economically disadvantaged children. Streptococcus mutants is the main bacteria that causes early childhood caries. Acid level on the teeth is increased due to the high level of sugar in the mouth. Firstly, the primary upper anterior teeth of the children are affected by ECC, and then it affects the upper primary molar teeth. Cavities are formed due to the progression of white spot lesions.
- Causes of dental caries
A competition between the protective factors and pathological factors is represented by the alteration of reminerlization anddemineralization phases. Carbohydrates and bacteria are called pathological factors whereas fluoride, phosphate, saliva and calcium are called protective factors. The interaction between time, a chronic bacterial infection, dietary substrate and a susceptible tooth causes cavities. Levan and glucan polymers are formed by S. mutantsbacteria. A biofilm called dental plaque is formed with polymers and bacteria when react and work together.
These are the basic details of dental caries in children. Visit your dentists for a regular check-up so that children will not be affected by this infectious disease.